The table below mentions the specific epidemiologic cohort studies being conducted in the ESCAPE study areas where measurements are being performed. It is important to note that collectively, the assembled cohort studies represent investments of several hundred million Euros by a large series of funding agencies and charities. The Principal Investigators of these studies have offered to make their data available for the ESCAPE project at very little cost, in the interest of finding new answers to the pressing scientific and policy questions on the health effects of air pollution. Within some of these studies, effects of air pollution have been looked at before. The ESCAPE project does not replicate, but is designed to produce new findings based on new exposure and/or follow-up data from each study.
Below the Table a list of references is given to papers (where available) that best describe the designs and populations of these studies.
|Study Area||Epidemiologic Study Acronym|
|Turin (Italy)||EPIC, SIDRIA, ECRHS|
|Rome (Italy)||GASPII, SIDRIA|
|Barcelona (Spain)||ECRHS, INMA|
|San Sebastian, Galdakao (Spain)||EPIC, INMA, ECRHS|
|Oviedo (Spain)||ECRHS, INMA|
|Oxford, Norfolk, Norwich, Ipswich (UK)||EPIC, ECRHS, UK 1946 cohort|
|Manchester (UK)||MAAS, UK 1946 cohort|
|Amsterdam (Netherlands)||EPIC, ABCD|
|Ruhr Area (Germany)||SALIA, RECALL|
|Munich (Germany)||LISA + GINI|
|Basel (Switzerland)||SAPALDIA, ECRHS|
|Copenhagen (Denmark)||DCH, National Birth Cohort|
|Oslo (Norway)||HUBRO, MOBA|
|Stockholm (Sweden)||BAMSE, TWINGENE, 60 YEAR OLDS|
|Umea (Sweden)||ECRHS, EPIC|
|Paris (France)||ECRHS, EPIC, GAZEL, EGEA, E3N|
|Grenoble (France)||ECRHS, EGEA, GAZEL, E3N|
|Marseille (France)||EPIC, EGEA, GAZEL, E3N|
|Lyon (France)||EPIC, EGEA, GAZEL, E3N|
|Nancy, Poitiers (France)||EDEN|
|Helsinki, Turku (Finland)||FINRISK|
List of references to cohort studies included in the ESCAPE project (in alphabetical order)
- 60 YEAR OLDS – Stockholm (Sweden):
- Wandell PE, Wajngot A, deFaire U, Hellenius ML. Increased prevalence of diabetes among immigrants from non-European countries in 60-year-old men and women in Sweden. Diatetes Metab 2007;33:30-36.
- ABCD - Amsterdam (Netherlands):
- van Eijsden M, van der Wal MF, Bonsel GJ. Folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort: the role of language proficiency. Bjog 2006;113(12):1446-51.
- BAMSE - Stockholm (Sweden):
- Wickman M, Kull I, Pershagen G, Nordvall SL. The BAMSE project: presentation of a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002;13 Suppl 15:11-3.
- BORN IN BRADFORD – Bradford (UK):
- COPENHAGEN ADULT COHORT (DIET, CANCER, HEALTH DCS) – Copenhagen (Denmark):
- Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Boll K, Stripp C, Christensen J, Engholm G, Overvad K. Study design, exposure variables, and socioeconomic determinants of participation in Diet, Cancer and Health: A population-based prospective cohort study of 57,053 men and women in Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2007.
- DANISH NATIONAL BIRTH COHORT – Copenhagen (Denmark):
- Olsen J. The Danish National Birth Cohort - a data source for studying preterm birth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2005;84(6):539-40.
- ECRHS multinational:
- Burney PG, Luczynska C, Chinn S, Jarvis D. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Eur Respir J 1994;7(5):954-60.
- Sunyer J, Jarvis D, Gotschi T, Garcia-Esteban R, Jacquemin B, Aguilera I, et al. Chronic bronchitis and urban air pollution in an international study. Occup Environ Med 2006;63(12):836-43.
- EDEN birth cohorts (France):
- Slama R, Sinno-Tellier S, et al. Relation Between Atmospheric Pollutants and Head Circumference in Utero and at Birth: a Cohort Study Relying on Ultrasound Imaging During Pregnancy. Epidemiology 2006;17(6 Suppl.):S129-S130.
- EGEA (France):
- Dizier MH, Bouzigon E, Guilloud-Bataille M, Betard C, Bousquet J, Charpin D, et al. Genome screen in the French EGEA study: detection of linked regions shared or not shared by allergic rhinitis and asthma. Genes Immun 2005;6(2):95-102.
- Kauffmann F, Dizier MH. EGEA (Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy)--design issues. EGEA Co-operative Group. Clin Exp Allergy 1995;25 Suppl 2:19-22.
- EPIC multinational:
- Vineis P, Hoek G, Krzyzanowski M, Vigna-Taglianti F, Veglia F, Airoldi L, et al. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer in a prospective study in Europe. Int J Cancer 2006;119(1):169-74.
- FINRISK (Finland):
- Raatikka VP, Rytkonen M, Nayha S, Hassi J. Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy. Int J Biometeorol 2007.
- GASPII - Rome (Italy):
- Porta D, Fantini MP. Prospective cohort studies of newborns in Italy to evaluate the role of environmental and genetic characteristics on common childhood disorders. The Italian J of Pediatrics. 2007.
- GAZEL (France):
- Goldberg M, Leclerc A, Bonenfant S, Chastang JF, Schmaus A, Kaniewski N, et al. Cohort profile: the GAZEL Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol 2006.
- HAPIEE - Cracow (Poland):
- Peasey A, Bobak M, Kubinova R, Malyutina S, Pajak A, Tamosiunas A, et al. Determinants of cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases in Central and Eastern Europe: rationale and design of the HAPIEE study. BMC Public Health 2006;6:255.
- HEINZ NIXDORF RECALL - Ruhr Area (Germany):
- Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Stang A, Beck EM, Dragano N, Mohlenkamp S, et al. Residence close to high traffic and prevalence of coronary heart disease. Eur Heart J 2006;27(22):2696-702.
- HUBRO - Oslo (Norway):
- Nafstad P, Haheim LL, Wisloff T, Gram F, Oftedal B, Holme I, et al. Urban air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Norwegian men. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112(5):610-5.
- INMA - Sabadell (Spain):
- KANC birth cohort - Kaunas (Lithuania):
- KORA - Augsburg (Germany):
- Scheurig AC, Thorand B, Fischer B, Heier M, Koenig W. Association between the intake of vitamins and trace elements from supplements and C-reactive protein: results of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007.
- LISA/GINI - Munich (Germany):
- Morgenstern V, Zutavern A, Cyrys J, Brockow I, Gehring U, Koletzko S, et al. Respiratory health and individual estimated exposure to traffic-related air pollutants in a cohort of young children. Occup Environ Med 2007;64(1):8-16.
- MAAS - Manchester (UK):
- Custovic A, Simpson A, Woodcock A. Manchester cohort. Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 2004;26:12-3.
- MOBA - Oslo (Norway):
- Magnus P, Irgens LM, Haug K, Nystad W, Skjaerven R, Stoltenberg C. Cohort profile: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol 2006;35(5):1146-50.
- PIAMA 3 regions in the Netherlands:
- Brauer M, Hoek G, Smit HA, de Jongste JC, Gerritsen J, Postma DS, et al. Air pollution and the development of asthma, allergy and infections in a birth cohort. Eur Respir J 2007.
- Brunekreef B, Smit J, de Jongste J, Neijens H, Gerritsen J, Postma D, et al. The prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study: design and first results. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2002;13 Suppl 15:55-60.
- REGICOR - Girona (Spain):
- Masia R, Sala J, Rohlfs I, Piulats R, Manresa JM, Marrugat J. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the province of Girona, Spain: the REGICOR study]. Rev Esp Cardiol 2004;57(3):261-4.
- RHEA - Heraklion (Greece):
- SAPALDIA 8 communities in Switzerland:
- Ackermann-Liebrich U, Kuna-Dibbert B, Probst-Hensch NM, Schindler C, Felber Dietrich D, Stutz EZ, et al. Follow-up of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA 2) 1991-2003: methods and characterization of participants. Soz Praventivmed 2005;50(4):245-63.
- Bayer-Oglesby L, Schindler C, Hazenkamp-von Arx ME, Braun-Fahrlander C, Keidel D, Rapp R, et al. Living near main streets and respiratory symptoms in adults: the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults. Am J Epidemiol 2006;164(12):1190-8.
- SIDRIA - Rome & Turin (Italy):
- Ciccone G, Forastiere F, Agabiti N, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Chellini E, et al. Road traffic and adverse respiratory effects in children. SIDRIA Collaborative Group. Occup Environ Med 1998;55(11):771-8.
- Galassi C, Biggeri A, Ciccone G, Forastiere F. Environment and respiratory diseases in childhood: the Italian experience. Int J Occup Environ Health 2005;11(1):103-6.
- TABC - Taiwan:
- Lin YC, Wen HJ, Lee YL, Guo YL. Are maternal psychosocial factors associated with cord immunoglobulin E in addition to family atopic history and mother immunoglobulin E? Clin Exp Allergy, 2004;34;548-554.
- THSS Taiwan:
- Chen T HH, Chiu YH, Luh DL, Yen MF, Wu HM, Chen LS, Tung TH, Huang CC, Chan CC, et al. Community-Based Multiple Screening Model: Design, Implementation, and Analysis of 42,387 Participants Cancer 2004; 1734-1743.
- TWIN GENE - Sweden:
- Lichtenstein P, deFaire U, Floderus B, Svartengren P, Svedberg P, Pedersen NL. The Swedish Twin Registry: a unique resource for clinical, epidemiological and genetic studies. J Int Med 2002;252:184-205.
- VHM&pp - Vorarlberg region (Austria):
- Ulmer H, Kelleher C, Diem G, Concin H. Long-term tracking of cardiovascular risk factors among men and women in a large population-based health system: the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Promotion Programme. Eur Heart J 2003;24(11):1004-13.